Singular green infrastructures
Singular green infrastructures tackle environmental problems in specific urban areas. Smart soils with properties such as auto-fertilization (through the absorption of nitrogen oxides, which are important air contaminants) and pollutant filtration can be introduced to integrate a number of other nature-based solutions. They will improve air and water quality, avoid artificial fertilization and enhance biodiversity. Large cycle-pedestrian infrastructures are part of this category. The areas consist of green pavements filled with smart soil and specific grass species. The goals of this initiative are to decrease conflicts between pedestrians and cyclists, reduce temperatures and manage water runoff. Pollinators’ activity can be supported through the design and installation of dedicated modules, walls and roofs. They create pollinator-friendly environments and corridors linking different city areas. Vertical and horizontal green infrastructures include green noise barriers and facades, wetland surfaces (capable of generating electricity through microbial fuel cell technology), floating gardens and cool pavements (with high solar reflectance). These are expected to reduce traffic noise and temperature, improve air quality and protection against heavy rains and support biodiversity. Pollutants filter such as biofilter units, trees and other species can reduce the level of pollution by absorbing a variety of harmful molecules and particulates from the atmosphere. Lastly, Urban farming facilities include orchards, livestock and greenhouses to improve wellbeing and for educational purposes.